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2016年1月25日 星期一

藝術何物


博友Gravel回應前敝博文<愛恨塗鴉>時提出兩個發人思考的問題:

A) 什麼是藝術?

B) 有何方法成為一個出名的藝術家?
- 言行出位, 標新立異, 以達驚世駭俗
- 不斷重覆自己的風格, 直至它變成一種主義(-ism)
- 於創作比賽中奪標而揚名
- 盡量將作品公諸於世
- 攀附一位富貴的贊助人, 讓他推銷你的作品

 
藝術畛域浩如煙海, 範疇不勝枚舉, : 寫作、語言、繪畫雕塑建築音樂舞蹈設計服飾飲食, 豈能一言以蔽之? 自知對藝術方面認識貧乏, 所知亦是管見, 冒昧回應Gravel列出的問題, 未免貽笑大方。不過我倒想在此說說一件未必為廣為人知的逸事 --- 混世魔星希特勒(Adolph Hitler)

 
希特勒是二戰時德國納粹黨黨魁, 他高舉優生學種族主義的大纛, 恣意屠殺了1100萬至1400萬人,其中包括猶太人波蘭人、吉普賽人、工會成員、共產黨員、異議份子、抵抗組織、同性戀、肢體或智能障礙者、精神病患者蘇聯戰俘、耶和華見證人信徒及基督徒等。但有誰知道在他踏上政壇嚐到權力滋味之前, 竟然是一個沉醉於繪畫希望以繪畫為職業的藝術家? 而且他還繪了不少取材自聖經的畫作

 
希特勒年青時曾立志成為一名職業畫家, 但兩次投考藝術學院(The Academy of Fine Arts Vienna)都失敗而被拒諸門外(考官嫌他的聖經畫太多景物而太少人物, 應改行去讀建築)。失意的他曾一度以沿街兜售自繪的名信片作生計, 並且流連於藝術家聚集的咖啡館, 希望能獲得某位藝術名家賞識而帶自己踏上藝術之途。可惜事與願違, 最終讓他走上政途。 根據歷史文獻記載, 希特勒於二戰開戰前跟英國駐德大使Nevile Henderson的一次談話中說: "I am an artist and not a politician. Once the Polish question is settled, I want to end my life as an artist." (我是藝術家, 並非政治家。一旦解決了波蘭這問題, 我將會以作為藝術家终吾餘年。) 這個看來無足輕重的個人命途轉折, 卻帶來一場人類浩劫, 可說是命運的弔詭、歷史的一大諷刺。

 
希特勒的畫作今仍存在。有些被拍賣, 投價以千萬計。戰後美軍亦沒收了不少, 現今為美國政府保存。 現在來看看希特勒溫和的一面, 你或許會不相信這些畫作竟是出自一個殺人魔王之手:





























 
 
我搜集了一些歷來不同藝術名家對「藝術」的感言, 雖未能概括藝術的涵義, 或許從中可以一窺藝術的堂奧: (附上敝中譯, 幸勿見笑):

The purpose of art is washing the dust of daily life off our souls. --- Pablo Picasso
藝術的目的在於從塵俗中洗滌我們的心靈

 
Vision is the art of seeing what is invisible to others. --- Jonathan Swift
眼光是一種能洞悉他人所看不到的藝術

 
This world is but a canvas to our imagination. --- Henry David Thoreau
世界只是一張為我們的想像力而舖設的畫布

 
If you hear a voice within you say 'you cannot paint,' then by all means paint, and that voice will be silenced. --- Vincent Van Gogh
假如你內心有一把聲音說你不會作畫, 那就盡量去畫吧, 那聲音自會沈默下來

 
The aim of art is to represent not the outward appearance of things, but their inward significance. --- Aristotle
藝術的目的並不在於表達事物的表像, 而是它深層的意義

 
Drawing is the honesty of the art. There is no possibility of cheating. It is either good or bad. --- Salvador Dali
繪畫是藝術上的忠誠個中沒有欺騙的可能性它只有好或壞

 
The artist is a receptacle for emotions that come from all over the place: from the sky, from the earth, from a scrap of paper, from a passing shape, from a spider's web.--- Pablo Picasso
藝術家是來自四面八方的激情的容器: 來自天與地、一張紙頭、瞬間的影像、一張蛛網。

 
Without tradition, art is a flock of sheep without a shepherd. Without innovation, it is a corpse. --- Winston Churchill
沒有傳統風格, 藝術只是一群沒有牧人的羊沒有創新, 藝術只是一具屍骸

 
Every artist dips his brush in his own soul, and paints his own nature into his pictures. --- Henry Ward Beecher
藝術家以畫筆從自己的靈魂中蘸上油彩, 以自己的本性注入圖畫內

 
The essence of all beautiful art, all great art, is gratitude. --- Friedrich Nietzsche
所有出色而偉大的藝術的精髓就是感恩

 
Every artist was first an amateur. --- Ralph Waldo Emerson
每個藝術家最初都是外行人

 
If art is to nourish the roots of our culture, society must set the artist free to follow his vision wherever it takes him. --- John F. Kennedy
假如藝術在於滋養文化之根芽, 社會必須讓藝術家們自由地隨心去追尋自己的夢想

 
A great artist is always before his time or behind it. --- George Edward Moore
偉大的藝術家永遠走在時代尖端, 否則落在後頭

 
The mission of art is to represent nature not to imitate her. --- William Morris Hunt
藝術的使命是表現自然的真性, 而非模仿

 
Art is not a thing; it is a way. --- Elbert Hubbard
藝術不是一件東西, 而是一種方式

 
There is nothing new in art except talent. --- Anton Chekhov
藝術沒有什麼新意, 除了天賦,

 
Painting is a nail to which I fasten my ideas. --- Georges Braque
藝術是一口我用以繫上我的意念的釘

 
Painting is just another way of keeping a diary. ---  Pablo Picasso
繪畫只是寫日記的另一種方式

 
Love the art in yourself and not yourself in the art. --- Constantin Stanislavski
熱愛你心中的藝術, 而不是藝術中的你

 
Art is not a handicraft, it is the transmission of feeling the artist has experienced. ---  Leo Tolstoy
藝術不是一件工藝品, 而是藝術家傳遞自己經驗所得的情感

 
The artist who aims at perfection in everything achieves it in nothing. --- Eugene Delacroix
事事追求完美的藝術家, 終是一事無成

 
Only through art can we emerge from ourselves and know what another person sees. ---- Marcel Proust
只有通過藝術我們才可以擺脫自己, 並且了解他人的觀點

 
A work of art has no importance whatever to society. It is only important to the individual. --- Vladimir Nabokov
一件藝術品對社會並不重要其重要性只是屬於個人的

 
The sculptor produces the beautiful statue by chipping away such parts of the marble block as are not needed - it is a process of elimination. --- Elbert Hubbard
雕刻家斫去大理石上多餘的部份, 造出一尊美麗的雕像 --- 這就是篩除的過程

 
Where the spirit does not work with the hand, there is no art. --- Leonardo da Vinci
手與心不互相合作, 不成藝術

 
Good art is art that allows you to enter it from a variety of angles and to emerge with a variety of views. --- Mary Schmich
好的藝術讓你從不同角度進入其中, 從而帶出多樣化的思維

 
To create one's world in any of the arts takes courage. --- Georgia O'Keeffe
能於不同的藝術領域中創造自己的世界, 這需要勇氣

 
A picture is a poem without words. --- Horace
一幅圖畫是一首無字的詩

 
Trying to force creativity is never good. --- Sarah McLachlan
勉強壓搾出來的創作絕對不是佳品

 
An empty canvas is full. --- Robert Rauschenberg
一張空白的畫布, 充滿意念

 
I'm afraid that if you look at a thing long enough, it loses all of its meaning. --- Andy Warhol
觀看一件東西過久, 它將失去所有的意義

 
Life beats down and crushes the soul and art reminds you that you have one. --- Stella Adler
生之厄困壓垮人之心靈, 而藝術提醒我們的心靈仍在

 
When one paints an ideal, one does not need to limit one's imagination. --- Ellen Key
描繪理念之際, 無須限制你的想像力

 
The art of art, the glory of expression and the sunshine of the light of letters, is simplicity. --- Walt Whitman
藝術中的藝術, 那感情的光輝, 那亮麗文字之耀眼陽光, 一一在於簡樸

 
Art begins with resistance - at the point where resistance is overcome. No human masterpiece has ever been created without great labor. --- Andre Gide
藝術始於反抗, 成於克服阻力的一刻沒有一件傑作是不經艱苦完成的

 
Abstract art: a product of the untalented sold by the unprincipled to the utterly bewildered. --- Al Capp
抽象主義: 出自無才華之手售自無原則之人落入徹底地困惑者手中的產品

 
When that shutter clicks, anything else that can be done afterward is not worth consideration. --- Edward Steichen
相機快門咔嗒一聲, 之後你所能做的一切已不值得考慮

 
No great artist ever sees things as they really are. If he did, he would cease to be an artist. --- Oscar Wilde
偉大的藝術家不會單看事物的表象, 否則他不是個藝術家

 
The principle of art is to pause, not bypass. --- Jerzy Kosinski
藝術的原則在於歇下來細察, 不是無視而繞過

 
What art offers is space - a certain breathing room for the spirit. --- John Updike
藝術提供的是空間 --- 一種讓心靈喘息的空間

 
A man paints with his brains and not with his hands. --- Michelangelo
以腦繪畫, 不是用手

 
To an engineer, good enough means perfect. With an artist, there's no such thing as perfect. --- Alexander Calder
對機械師來說, 夠好了就是完美藝術家卻沒有完美這回事

 
Even a true artist does not always produce art. --- Carroll O'Connor
最上乘的藝術家也未必能屢次創造出藝術品

 
Art, like morality, consists in drawing the line somewhere. --- Gilbert K. Chesterton
藝術有如道德規範, 視乎能於某處劃上界線

 
So vast is art, so narrow human wit. --- Alexander Pope
藝術何其浩瀚, 人腦何其狹隘

 
Art is the only way to run away without leaving home. --- Twyla Tharp
藝術乃不用離家出走而能自我解脫的唯一方法

 
I choose a block of marble and chop off whatever I don't need. --- Auguste Rodin
我撿起一塊大理石, 斫掉任何我不需要的部份

 
Painting is easy when you don't know how, but very difficult when you do. --- Edgar Degas
不懂繪畫, 下筆容易懂了便難以落筆

 
Great artists suffer for the people. --- Marvin Gaye
大眾乃藝術家之患

 
Lying in bed would be an altogether perfect and supreme experience if only one had a colored pencil long enough to draw on the ceiling. --- Gilbert K. Chesterton
假如手中有一枝長得可以讓我在天花板上繪畫的顏色筆, 那麼躺在床上是一個多麼完美至高無上的體驗

 
I don't paint things. I only paint the difference between things. --- Henri Matisse
我並非繪畫, 我只是描繪事物之間的分別

 
Artists themselves are not confined, but their output is. --- Robert Smithson
藝術家本身沒有局限, 只是囿於自己的作品

 
Art is either plagiarism or revolution. --- Paul Gauguin
藝術不是抄襲便是革命

 
A work of art that contains theories is like an object on which the price tag has been left. --- Alexander Pope
附上理論的藝術品, 有如一件仍未除去價錢標籤的貨品

 
Art produces ugly things which frequently become more beautiful with time. Fashion, on the other hand, produces beautiful things which always become ugly with time. --- Jean Cocteau
難看的藝術品往往經年而變得美麗。 時尚帶來美物, 但時間一久便變得難看。

 
The business of art is to reveal the relation between man and his environment. --- D. H. Lawrence
藝術之道在於展露人與其四周狀況之間的關係

 
The best artists know what to leave out. --- Charles de Lint
上乘的藝術家深明略去之道

 
Art is the unceasing effort to compete with the beauty of flowers - and never succeeding. --- Gian Carlo Menotti
藝術有如不懈地去跟花朵爭妍鬥麗而永不成功

 
A great artist can paint a great picture on a small canvas. --- Charles Dudley Warner
偉大的藝術家能於細小的畫布上繪出非凡的作品

 
The principles of true art is not to portray, but to evoke. --- Jerzy Kosinski
藝術的原則不在於描繪, 而是在於激發感情

 
Life is the art of drawing without an eraser. --- John W. Gardner
生活是一種不帶橡皮擦去繪畫的藝術

 
You must not fight too often with one enemy, or you will teach him all your art of war. --- Napoleon Bonaparte
不要經常跟敵人打仗, 否則你將會教曉他你所有的戰略

 
Creative without strategy is called 'art.' Creative with strategy is called 'advertising.' --- Jef I. Richards
不含策略性的創作是藝術。含策略性的創作是只是廣告。

 
People discuss my art and pretend to understand as if it were necessary to understand, when it's simply necessary to love.  --- Claude Monet
人們討論我的作品並裝作了解, 似乎有必要去了解其實只需愛它便行

 
In art, the obvious is a sin. --- Edward Dmytryk
作為藝術, 露骨是一種罪過

 
Literature is the art of discovering something extraordinary about ordinary people, and saying with ordinary words something extraordinary. --- Boris Pasternak
文學是一種從普通人身上發掘其不平凡之處 以平淡語言寫出非凡文字的藝術

 
The art of pleasing is the art of deception. --- Luc de Clapiers
討好的藝術是欺騙的藝術

 
I don't listen to what art critics say. I don't know anybody who needs a critic to find out what art is. --- Jean-Michel Basquiat
我不理會藝術評論家說什麼。 我不知道誰需要靠藝術評論家去明白什麼是藝術

 
What the mass media offers is not popular art, but entertainment which is intended to be consumed like food, forgotten, and replaced by a new dish. --- W. H. Auden
大眾媒體提供的並非通俗藝術, 它只是一種娛樂, 只供消耗食後即忘、另換一碟新菜的食物

 
Art is never finished, only abandoned. --- Leonardo da Vinci
藝術永遠沒有完成這回事, 只有放棄